Ngā Pūrākau me Ngā Pakiwaitara - Myths and legends
Why are myths and legends important?
Myths and legends are often stories of origins, how the world and everything in it came to be. As such they form an integral part of cultural identity. Māori have many myths legends which help to explain human existence, characteristics of human nature, the environment and the basis of a Māori cultural worldview.
Māori myths and legends reflect themes commonly found in the stories of indigenous cultures.
Sky and earthIn Māori mythology the sky father, Rangi, is masculine and the earth mother, Papatūānuku, is feminine. They were clasped together and the world (between them) existed in total darkness. Their children lived in this darkness, trapped between their parents.
The struggle of the generationsIn Māori mythology the separation of sky and earth allowed light to enter the world which in turn led to the growth of all plants and animals. However, the separation was bitter, painful and precipitated by the children’s need to dominate their parents.
Gods and Guardians, Atua and KaitiakiThe creation story tells of brothers, gods in their own right, who were restless and bored with being trapped in eternal darkness. They explored options for gaining freedom including Tūmatauenga’s (god of man and war) plan that their parents should be killed in order to let light in. Finally, led by Tānemahuta (god of the forest, birds and animals), the parents were separated by his awesome strength, never to embrace again.
Other GodsTraditionally Māori acknowledge many gods, both male and female, which are referred to the cultural stories. Gods such as Rongomatāne god of cultivated foods, Haumietiketike god of uncultivated foods, Rūaumoko god of earthquakes and volcanoes, Tāwhirimātea god of wind and storm and Tangaroa god of the sea are still commonly acknowledged in Māori karakia (prayer).
Each tribe, hapū (sub-tribe) and whānau (extended family) also has its own stories which describe and explain the significant characters and events in their history. These stories have been passed down through the generations as oral histories or through artwork such as carvings.